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Location: UFOUpDatesList.Com > 1999 > Apr > Apr 9

Re: Krauss' Faulty Physics

From: David Rudiak <DRudiak@aol.com>
Date: Thu, 8 Apr 1999 23:57:49 EDT
Fwd Date: Fri, 09 Apr 1999 22:51:03 -0400
Subject: Re: Krauss' Faulty Physics


>From: Jim Deardorff <deardorj@proaxis.com>
>Date: Wed, 7 Apr 1999 23:18:05 -0700 (PDT)
>Fwd Date: Thu, 08 Apr 1999 18:14:52 -0400
>Subject: Re: Krauss' Faulty Physics

>Hello David,

>So the trick, then, is to get the entire spacecraft to be
>enveloped within a uniform magnetic-like field capable of huge
>intensity and generated within, with field strength and
>direction variable at will so as to exactly compensate the
>craft's variable acceleration (and gravity), but having
>precisely equal strength and direction everywhere within for
>every component and item within the craft and its exterior --
>whether some components be paramagnetic, others diamagnetic, or
>metals, dielectrics, liquids, alien bodies, etc. It still sounds
>to me like this will need to wait until another 30 centuries or
>so before anything like it is achievable by us earthlings. Or it
>would need to be something other than the magnetism we know of.


Jim,

I don't think it is as grim as that. First of all, the purpose
is to protect the occupants from the effects of high
acceleration, not the spacecraft, which presumably can be built
strong enough to withstand the accelerations without field
protection. Spacecraft can be built of very strong materials
such as metals, carbon fiber composites, etc., whereas humans
are mostly jelly. We're the ones who need help. So the magnets
need only enclose the passengers, not the entire spacecraft.

If necessary, the spacecraft could be made of nonferrous
materials, which they basically are already because of weight
considerations. Interaction between the magnets and the
spacecraft probably wouldn't be that severe a problem to begin
with, because the magnetic field of the toroids falls off rather
quickly with distance. And if there is still a problem, then the
entire magnet/passenger compartment could be enclosed with a
superconducting shield.

Any electronics within the passenger compartment would also have
to be shielded. Or maybe something akin to fiberoptical control
interfaces would have to be developed. None of these problems
seem inherently insurmountable. Hey, nobody said it would be
easy to engineer such a thing.

To compensate 100 g acceleration, we would need superconducting
magnets with just one order of magnitude greater magnetic fields
than what we have now. If a 16 Tesla SC magnet generates 1 g of
diamagnetic acceleration on the frog (exactly compensating for
the 1g gravitational acceleration in the opposite direction),
then a 160 Tesla field would shoot the frog out of the magnet at
100g acceleration (since the diamagnetic force goes up as the
square of the field).

To the best of my knowledge, there are 80 Tesla continuously
operating experimental magnets already in existence.
Unfortunately they tend to be either conventional toroids using
either copper or silver wire or hybrids with an inner SC magnet
surrounded by an outer non-SC toroid. Because copper and silver
have finite resistance and it takes a lot of current to get
these high fields, the wire has to be continuously cooled with
rivers of water or the whole thing would melt down in a hurry.
So obviously that isn't going to work.

The magnets would have to be superconductors, and we just don't
have any that strong yet. The main problem is that with present
superconductors, the superconductivity breaks down if the
current density gets too high. So we would need superconducting
materials with ten times the current density carrying capacity
of present SC's. Having them be room temperature SC's wouldn't
hurt either, since it would eliminate all that clunky and heavy
cryogenic cooling equipment one would otherwise need to maintain
the low temperatures conventional SC's require.

As futuristic as this may sound, we may not be that far off from
realizing such materials. E.g., it has been recently reported
that laboratory carbon nanotubules exhibit superconducting
properties at room temperatures. This could be a tremendous
breakthrough if true. Carbon nanotubules also have other highly
desirable properties for high-field magnets, being lighter in
weight than conventional metallic low temperature or ceramic
high temperature SC's, and incredibly strong (30 to 100 times
the tensile strength of steel). That would help hold these huge
magnets together, because the outward pressures on them are
tremendous. They have to be carefully designed not to explode.

Another emerging technology with much promise is nanotechnology,
the assemblage of exactly specificied materials at the atomic
level. That would permit, e.g., the creation of perfect
materials lacking all normal crystalline flaws such as
dislocations. It is these flaws in present materials which limit
their strength, hardness, and heat resistance. It
superconductors, it may also also limit their current carrying
capacity. Do away with the flaws and we may be able to achieve
the necessary currents in already known superconducting
materials.

As an aside, long before he got embroiled in the present-day
"Majestic-12" controversy, Dr. Bob Wood was a research and
development manager for McDonnell Douglass. In 1966 he convinced
M-D to fund a UFO research group to brainstorm ways in which
principles derived from operations of UFOs might be applied to
human aerospace technology. Through quite independent arguments,
they deduced that a craft could be supported by a strong
magnetic field if SC magnets could be developed with 10 times
the current carrying capacity of existing ones. Wood then
describes what happened when he presented this result before
Edward Condon and other members of the Condon panel ("A Little
Physics...A Little Friction: A Close Encounter With The Condon
Committee, IUR, July/Aug 1993):

"I gave my briefing, giving a little background, and quickly got
to evaluating the design limits discussed above. At that time,
during the briefing I noted that the current density required
(10^14 amps/m^2 minimum) was only a factor of ten greater than
that achieved by the best superconductors of the day. Dr. Condon
said, 'Well, there's your answer! You can't do it.' Several
committee members looked at him incredulously."


David Rudiak


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