From: Patricia Mason <email@example.com> Date: Sat, 30 Jan 1999 08:39:50 -0500 Fwd Date: Sat, 30 Jan 1999 18:54:26 -0500 Subject: Hearing On U.S. Spacepower In The 21St Century http://www.nro.odci.gov/speeches/29SepSFR.html Statement By Assistant Secretary Of The Air Force (Space) and Director, National Reconnaissance Office Keith R. Hall Before The House Science Committee Space And Aeronautics Subcommittee, House National Security Committee Military Research And Development Subcommittee, And House National Security Committee Military Procurement Subcommittee Hearing On U.S. Spacepower In The 21St Century 29 September 1998 I am pleased to be here today to discuss the changing environment of space in the 21st century and the growing role of spacepower in U.S. national security. I would also like to outline the initiatives undertaken by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Intelligence Community (IC) to ensure that the United States maintains space-based information superiority in the next millennium. Criticality of U.S. Space Capabilities Today U.S. space capabilities are the indispensable tools of global leadership. They allow our political leaders to base decisions on a remarkably solid, broad, and detailed foundation of information. Space systems enable our military leaders to dominate the battlefield by providing global communications, precision navigation, accurate meteorological data, early warning of missile launches, and signals and imagery intelligence support. The global presence of space systems makes it possible for the U.S. to more effectively address the wide range of threats presented by the post-Cold War world. In the future, U.S. forces will rely upon space systems for global awareness of threats, swift orchestration of military operations, and precision use of smart weapons. As we move into the new millennium, one of the key goals of military space power will be migration of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) from traditional terrestrial platforms to the high ground of space. Combined with global communications and high speed information processing, ISR will deliver precise military firepower anywhere in the world, day or night, in all weather. Our goal is to detect, track, and target anything of significance worldwide and to get the right information to the right people at the right time. This capability will allow the U.S. to maintain a nonintrusive global presence and deliver precision weapons on target to maximize combat power while minimizing collateral damage. A New Space Environment While the United States has long enjoyed dominance in space, we can no longer take this advantage for granted. The utilization of space is changing rapidly and we will not be able to maintain our edge in the future without careful planning, prudent investment, and shared commitment to a common goal. We are now in a critical transitional period. In past decades, the United States was the most powerful and effective member of an exclusive club=97few nations could field satellites. In the future, the growth of the commercial space industry will open up this club to anyone with the price of admission. Space assets will be available to our adversaries during peacetime, crisis, and war. Capabilities that are U.S. secrets today may be common knowledge tomorrow. Space will become an increasingly crowded and contentious arena. Strategy for Continued Space Dominance Loss of the advantage space now gives the U.S. in national decision making and military operations would be a severe threat to our national security and to our international stature. The United States can=97and must=97continue to field space systems that are more capable, more agile, and more reliable than those of our adversaries. We must develop unique collection capabilities against the most intractable intelligence targets. Finally, we must be prepared for the possibility that our adversaries will target U.S. government or commercial space systems. I would like to highlight some of the key elements of our strategy for ensuring space-based information superiority: First, we are strengthening research and development to achieve revolutionar y breakthroughs in capabilities. Second, we are strengthening our space programs through partnerships between the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the Air Force, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Third, we are leveraging advances in the commercial space industry to lower costs and improve the capabilities of our satellite systems. Finally, we are conducting research on ways to protect our space assets. Let me elaborate on each of these areas. Achieving Revolutionary Advances The NRO is now moving from an evolutionary to a revolutionary research and development profile. This approach aims for quantum improvements in U.S. capability to collect against hard targets such as weapons proliferators, to support military operations, and to counter foreign denial and deception efforts. The NRO is now close to achieving a goal of devoting 10 percent of its budget to Research and Development (R&D). Consistent with this investment, the NRO has established an Advanced Systems and Technology Directorate to manage R&D programs. This directorate=92s charter is to accelerate the process of identifying, developing, and adopting new technologies. This is not a unilateral effort. In 1997, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and NASA created the Space Technology Alliance to coordinate the development of affordable, effective space technologies. This will allow us to avoid duplication of effort and ensure that we get the most out of our R&D funds. The program includes an exchange of personnel among the three agencies and biannual senior technology summits to review programs. Space Partnerships In an era of shrinking defense and intelligence budgets, we can no longer afford to maintain separate domains for black and white space programs. Future U.S. space dominance will rely on successful collaboration between the NRO and the Air Force to deliver the space systems of the future sooner, better, and cheaper. As the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Space and the Director of the NRO, I have worked with General Myers and his predecessor, General Estes, to ensure that we will be able to meet the needs of national and military users. Let me describe two key efforts to achieve this cooperation. In August, the Secretary of Defense (SecDef) and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) appointed General "Mitch" Mitchell National Security Space Architect (NSSA) to develop, coordinate, and integrate DoD and Intelligence Community Space architectures. This position was created in response to a Presidential Decision Directive, which directed that the SecDef and the DCI ensure close coordination of defense and space activities. The NSSA will use the body of work produced by the DoD Space Architect as a point of departure to build an integrated national security space roadmap. We have formed an Air Force-NRO Integration Planning Group, a small team that will search out new collaborative ventures to enhance our capabilities, reduce the costs of space services, and improve our support to the military customer. This team will develop and promote new ideas and serve as the focal point for examining and coordinating innovative Air Force-NRO program integration concepts. The Global Positioning System (GPS) initially conceived as a precision navigation system for military forces, has now grown into an international industry. In 1996, the President directed that the highly accurate GPS signal be made available unrestricted to the civil community. The Department of Transportation now plays a key role in the administration of the GPS system along with the DoD. Together we are coordinating with our international partners to make GPS the world=92s navigation system of choice. To that end, the Japanese have just announced their intention to work closely with the U.S. to promote broad and effective use of GPS. In the area of meteorology, the Air Force=92s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program will soon evolve into the National Polar Orbiting Environmental System, a joint DoD and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operation. The convergence of the DoD and NOAA satellite meteorology systems will save the U.S. government $1.3 billion and create a more robust environmental sensing architecture. This architecture will also include a European partner, the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, who are providing one of the three satellites in the constellation. Leveraging the Commercial World The rapid expansion of commercial satellite communication will bring affordable, mobile communications to every corner of the globe and create a new information infrastructure for banking, commerce, medicine, science, diplomacy, and education. Shortly after the turn of the century there will be an estimated 1800 commercial communication satellites on orbit to serve as the information backbone of the new global economy. This space-based information network will tie together the world=92s economic, government, and societal institutions in new and unpredictable ways. Commercial remote sensing will also continue to grow and improve from the 2-5 meter resolution now available on the world marketplace. The DoD supports the growth of the commercial satellite industry and we are already taking advantage of commercial technologies, as well as commercial manufacturing techniques, to reduce costs and increase efficiency. The lessons learned from mass manufacturing of commercial satellites will provide benefits for both government and industry. The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program is the next step in reducing our launch costs and creating a more operable and responsive spacelift infrastructure. The launch demands of the commercial space industry will drive significant improvements in range modernization and reusable launch technology. In turn, the U.S. military will benefit from a more robust launch capacity and U.S. industry will gain a more competitive footing in the international launch market. The DoD and the IC are beginning to share the burdens of raw technology development and the costs of industrial infrastructure with a successful commercial industry. This will act to lower costs for satellite development and manufacturing. Some of the most promising areas for cost reduction include launch services and the use of commercial satellite buses=97the NRO is already using a commercial bus for some satellite systems. Our eventual goal is to move the production of satellites from a craft industry to a manufacturing industry that can deploy national security space systems better, cheaper, and faster. I welcome opportunities for commercial solutions to other government space requirements. For example, if a mature commercial imagery system can provide mapping data, then the U.S. government need not finance fully redundant capability. Instead, the NRO would concentrate on more technically challenging space-based intelligence collection methods. Preparing for the Future As the President=92s national security strategy states, "We are committed to keeping free and open access to space for keeping the peace and in support of national security." Our space capabilities are major elements of our national strength and we must ensure that they are protected. We must conduct the appropriate research to this end. Conclusion Our space assets are an immensely valuable national resource. As foreign and commercial space sectors continue to grow, we must seriously consider our growing national dependence on space systems and the protection of those national assets. If the United States is to accrue the full advantages of space in the future, we must maintain the world=92s preeminent space capability. Achieving this goal will require close cooperation between the NRO, the Air Force, NASA, and other agencies, as well as a strong relationship with the commercial space industry. It will also require the unwavering support of Congress. It will take time, coordinated effort, and significant resources to ensure continued U.S. space dominance, but it will be one of the most important investments we can make to ensure U.S. global leadership in the next century.
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