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Location: UFOUpDatesList.Com > 2005 > May > May 3

Michio Kaku Talks Parallel Universes

From: UFO UpDates - Toronto <ufoupdates.nul>
Date: Tue, 03 May 2005 09:24:52 -0400
Fwd Date: Tue, 03 May 2005 09:24:52 -0400
Subject: Michio Kaku Talks Parallel Universes




On Thursday 14 February 2002 BBC2 TV's Horizon Series aired
'Parallel Universes' - see:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2001/paralleluni.shtml


Subsequently, Professor Michio Kaku participated in an on-line
chat session - see:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/spacechat/livechat/michio_kaku.shtml

Readers will recall that Kaku closed the Jennings/ABC
documentary recently.....

-----

Michio Kaku Talks Parallel Universes


Marco: How do you see the experimental confirmation on
superstring theory? How long will it remain an unproven theory?

Dr Michio Kaku: The direct proof of superstring theory may lie
far in the future, However, indirect measurements may come
fairly soon. Most science, in fact, is done with indirect
experiments. For example, we have never visited the Sun but we
know that is made out of Hydrogen because we have echoes from
the Sun called sunlight. Similarly, we hope to find echoes from
the tenth dimension. For example, in Geneva Switzerland, a large
Hadron Collider will be turned on and we hope to find particles
or super-particles which would be the next lowest vibration of
the superstring. Furthermore, dark matter which makes up 90% of
the Universe maybe made up of super-particles .


Keith Marsden: Could I exist in a parallel universe and if so
would my life take a different course?

Dr Michio Kaku: There are many kinds of parallel universe. If we
speak of quantum parallel universe then there may be resemblance
to our Universe, except with one quantum difference. For
example, if a cosmic ray went through Hitler's mother's womb and
Hitler was never born, we could be one quantum event away from a
parallel universe without World War 2. However, if the parallel
universe is in another dimension then the laws of Physics
themselves will change and atoms maybe unstable. And two kinds
of matter exist - in those universes, Physics may look entirely
different from our own.


Josh Conway: How important is time to the M-Theory?

Dr Michio Kaku: M-Theory is defined in eleven dimensional space
time with ten dimensions of space and one dimension of time. So
M-Theory only has one time. However, there is some speculation
that F-Theory may contain two dimensions of time and ten
dimensions of space. So that there would be two times in a
twelve dimensional universe. However, F-Theory is only held by a
minority of physicists.


Mike Garman: Your theory explains the start of our Universe, but
where do the membranes come from that started it?

Dr Michio Kaku: We believe that a multiverse of universes exist
like bubbles floating in Nothing. Each bubble forms as a quantum
fluctuation in Nothing. We feel that as this bubble forms its
matter is dominated by strings and membranes which create
musical notes which we see as particles of the universe.


Ross McManus: Can dark matter and black holes be explained using
the M-Theory?

Dr Michio Kaku: Partially yes. In M-Theory, black hole solutions
exist not only as a remnant of a dying star; they also exist as
subatomic particles. So there is an unity between black holes
and elementary particles. Also, the next vibration of the string
includes a photino or particle which may make up most of the
dark matter in the Universe. So dark matter maybe a higher
musical note on the string.


Pieter Verhoeven: What is meant by "Bubbles of Nothing"?

Dr Michio Kaku: Boiling water is a purely quantum mechanical
event. If water molecules were like billiard balls, water would
never boil. Water boils and a tiny fluctuation occurs in water.
Similarly, universes maybe created all the time, even as we
speak, due to fluctuation in Nothing. In other words, universes
maybe for free and Big Bangs, happen all the time like in
boiling water.


Peter Wentworth: What are the possibilities for a second Big
Bang collision? Is it theoretically possible?

Dr Michio Kaku: There is some speculation that gamma-ray
bursters release the greatest amount s of energy since the Big
Bang. There is some speculation that they maybe powerful enough
to open a hole in our bubble Universe, so that our Universe buds
into two universes, creating a baby universe which leaves the
mother universe. However, until M-Theory becomes better
understood we cannot prove that baby universes can be created
from our Universe.


John Reyes: Dr Kaku, how can one travel in time when time does
not exist? And if it did, would you know which way to point your
ship?

Dr Michio Kaku: Time is like a river. It bends and flows around
the Universe. Time may also have whirlpools and also may fork
into two rivers. In this way, time travel might be possible.
However, you have to have the Plank energy to create a time
machine or the energy of a Black Hole. That is far beyond our
technology.


Dr: Do eleven dimensions mean there are other life forms of any
kind?

Dr Michio Kaku: We do not know if life-forms can exist in
another dimension. However, atoms as we know them may not be
stable in other dimensions. If we replace Newton's Inverse
square law with an inverse tube law then solar systems and atoms
fall apart. However, new forms of matter may exist in higher
dimensions.


Viva Wright: Is there the possibility that unconscious knowledge
is transferred between universes?

Dr Michio Kaku: At the present time, physicist believe that
consciousness is confined to the human brain so telepathy
between universes may not be possible. However, the problem of
consciousness in a quantum-theory is still an unresolved
problem. M-Theory is still a quantum-theory.


Nick Rimmington Do you think this theory may explain why the
rate of expansion of the universe is increasing?

Dr Michio Kaku: Nobody knows how to calculate dark energy which
is causing the Universe to accelerate. The best hope is M-
Theory, but no-one knows how to solve M-Theory or the Big Bang.
Maybe one of the viewers of this programme will be inspired to
use M-Theory to explain the accelerating Universe.


Parallel Universes Live ChatAdam Kirsch: If space is the 5th
dimension what are the 6th or 7th?

Dr Michio Kaku: If the fifth dimension vibrates, then ripples on
the fifth dimension are visible as light. If the other
dimensions vibrate, then the ripples are seen as the nuclear
force, so the forces of the universe can be viewed as ripples in
hyper-space.


Christopher Sayer: Can a new membrane be created from two
membranes colliding?

Dr Michio Kaku: When two membranes or two strings collide, they
create new membranes and new string. The diagrams which tell us
how membranes and strings collide are like the Feynman diagrams
that we see in quantum-theory. Our bodies are symphonies of
vibrating strings and membranes. The Chemistry of our body is a
consequence of the collision of these membranes and strings.


Simon Lawrence: If the Universe is constantly expanding, when
does this sign the end of our known Universe?

Dr Michio Kaku: Our Universe will die in ice rather than fire.
Our Universe eventually, trillions and trillions of years away
from now, will reach near absolute zero making intelligent life
impossible. Therefore, we may have to escape into hyper-space if
we are to survive the death of the Universe.


Tom Brown: In theory, is it possible to use the space between
the Universes, leaving and re-entering, in order to travel many
light years within our Universe, but without time having passed?

Dr Michio Kaku: Einstein's equations give us a possibility to
leap into hyper-space through a worm-hole to reach another
universe. However, we don't have enough energy to open up such a
hole and we don't know how stable such a hole might be.


Brian Whaley: If time has only one dimension how can one deal
with the issue of how "fast" time passes - and the difference
between "time of day" and time as duration?

Dr Michio Kaku: M-Theory is only mathematically consistent with
one dimension of time and ten dimensions of space. M-Theory is
mathematically inconsistent for any other combination.


Sam Jenkins: if our Universe is contained within a "bubble",
what makes up the surface?

Dr Michio Kaku: The surface of this bubble is the Universe
itself. People often ask where did the Big Bang take place? The
Big Bang did not take place on the surface of the bubble, it
took place inside the bubble, i.e. in hyper-space.


Phil Williams: What is hyper-space?

Dr Michio Kaku: Hyper-space is space beyond three dimensions of
space and one dimension of time. Historically, scientists
thought that hyper-space could not exist, now we believe that in
hyper-space there is enough room to unify all fundamental
forces. Four dimensions of space time are too small to unify the
four fundamental forces


Chris Norrie: Do you believe in infinity?

Dr Michio Kaku: There are many types of infinity. The age of our
universe may increase without limit because our universe is
accelerating. In space, however, our universe may be finite in
hyper-space but infinite in three dimension just like a bubble.
So the farthest object in the universe would be the back of your
head.


Patrick Clarke: Are there infinite particles with the same x,y,z
& time values as those in my body?

Dr Michio Kaku: Well, in M-Theory there are an infinite number
of particles. Each one represents a musical note on a string or
membrane, so the atoms of our body are like those of a string.
Chemistry is the melodies on these membranes and the universe is
a symphony of vibrating membranes and string.


William Joseph: Does M-theory say anything about the idea that
the speed of light in our universe may be slowing down?

Dr Michio Kaku: M-Theory reproduces all of Einstein's theory and
more. Therefore, the speed of light in a vacuum never changes.


Tony Hall: Does string theory incorporate number theory in its
structure?

Dr Michio Kaku: String theory has gobbled up many branches of
Mathematics which has astounded mathematicians. However, there
is one branch of Mathematics that seems beyond the reach of
string theory which is number theory. For example, we do not
find Fermat's last theorem in string theory.


Jean: Could black holes be routes from our Universe to the other
parallel universes? Could than be why nothing comes out of them?

Dr Michio Kaku: Yes, there is a theory that says that universes
may have children, via a budding process in which a universe
splits into two smaller universes. However this is just a
theory, and we will have to wait until M-Theory is further
developed to decide whether universes can have children.


Parallel Universes Live ChatPatrick Clarke: Is the Big Bang
where all eleven dimensions have a value of zero?

Dr Michio Kaku: In one solution of M-Theory, our Universe is a
four-dimensional ball floating in eleven dimensions. In the
other seven dimensions, there could be other bubbles floating.
One theory says that the nearest bubble to our Universe maybe
one millimetre away from us. This theory will be tested in
Geneva in a few more years.


Nigel: Does the rate of vibration of membranes offer a possible
connection between them?

Dr Michio Kaku: Large membranes may resemble universes like our
own floating in eleven dimensional hyper-space. However, tiny
membranes can be viewed as subatomic particles whose vibration
and interaction give us the laws of Chemistry. Therefore M-
Theory unifies subatomic particles and universes.


Trici Shaw: What is the "F" from F-Theory?

Dr Michio Kaku: F for F-Theory stands for Father. M for M-Theory
may stand for Mother, Mystery or Membrane.


Alan Trevitt: If universes are parallel to each other, why does
gravity run in only one direction i.e., downwards?

Dr Michio Kaku: Gravity is caused by the working of space time.
Therefore, if we have two bubbles close to each other they will
distort the space time surrounding them and feel each others
gravity. Therefore, dark matter may be the presence of a
neighbouring universe that we cannot see.


Alex Greybrook: How was hyper space discovered?

Dr Michio Kaku: The Greeks tried to prove 2000 years ago that
hyper-space was impossible. However, Vernhard Riemann proved in
the 1870s that hyper-space was possible. Then Kaluza in 1921
showed that universes may exist in hyper-space.


Richie Lunt: Although atoms are stable in our dimension would
this be this case in others?

Dr Michio Kaku: Atoms in other dimensions may be unstable
because the inverse square law does not hold. However, two forms
of stable matter may exist in hyper universes, which are not
based on atoms. But, physicists do not know any more than this.


Funky Monkey: Why are the other parallel universe's membranes
different shapes. Shouldn't they be the same? Does what happens
on the inside effects the universe's physical shape?

Dr Michio Kaku: Membranes can come in many sizes and many
shapes. For example, a zerobrane is a particle, a onebrane is a
string, a twobrane may be a membrane and a threebrane maybe a
universe.


Zhou Fang: M-Theory may be shown to be mathematically possible,
but would we ever be able to prove that it is actually the case?

Dr Michio Kaku: Experimentally, we hope to find super particles
in the next few years with our atom-smashers. However, I believe
that if we are smart enough we could solve the theory and then
derive all the laws of Chemistry and Physics. That to me would
be a proof that M-Theory is correct. So, those experiments are
not really necessary. Theory is enough.


Ross Campbell: Where did the energy required to produce
membranes in the first instance come from?

Dr Michio Kaku: The amount of energy necessary to create a
bubbled universe is zero. Matter has positive energy, but
gravity has negative energy. The sum of the two might be zero.
This means that bubbled universes can be created all the time.
So the Universe is for free.


Kevin Wan: If the fabric of the Universe is being stretched,
does this also mean that the membrane is also being stretched?
If so, when will the stretching cease?

Dr Michio Kaku: In one theory, our Universe is a membrane. We
live on the skin of this membrane which is constantly expanding
because of dark energy. We think this expansion is accelerating
and may go on for ever without limit.


Pimmy: Have any major "flaws" or "gaps" been found in M-theory
so far which makes it unable to explain something?

Dr Michio Kaku: So far, M-Theory has withstood every
mathematical challenge. In the past, previous attempts at a
theory of everything could be shown to be mathematically
inconsistent. M-Theory is the only theory which seems to be
mathematically consistent. However, there are many solutions to
M-Theory, one of which may be our Universe. No-one has found
that one solution yet.


Adrian: I've heard that in other universes time might flow
backwards! Is this true?

Dr Michio Kaku: Not long ago, Stephen Hawking thought that time
may go backwards. If the Universe pulsated then during the
contraction he thought that time might run backward. However, he
has since admitted that he was wrong. Therefore, most physicists
do not believe that time will reverse itself in our Universe. If
there are time machines, you might be able to reverse time in a
small area, but not for the entire Universe.


Trekkie: Is there a possibility of a 12th dimension?

Dr Michio Kaku: In F-Theory the physicists at Harvard University
have proposed a universe with two-times, so that you would have
to have two watches on your wrist to tell you what time it is.
However, most physicists today do not take F-Theory seriously
although it seems compatible with M-Theory. This is still a
mystery.


Rob Wood: How does M-theory explain quantum entanglement - is it
via the collapsed dimensions?

Dr Michio Kaku: Quantum entanglement is a problem for all
quantum theories including M-Theory. Quantum entanglement says
that the Universe is non-local and that information may travel
faster than light,. However, no useful information can be sent
faster than light by means of quantum entanglement so there are
no paradoxes in time.


Bernard Hunt: Is time just the human awareness; a thing that
isn't really a dimension?

Dr Michio Kaku: Space time is an arena on which matter can
exist. Therefore, time is a co-ordinate that measures the
passing or evolution of an object. Some people have said that
time does not exist, which confuses the perception of time with
time as a co-ordinate on this arena.


Max Guglia: Apart from empirical speculation, what could be the
benefits for humanity of proving the M-Theory?

Dr Michio Kaku: In the short term, nothing. But when Newton
worked out the Force of Gravity, he helped to set into motion
the industrial revolution. When Faraday worked out electricity
and magnetism he set into motion the electric age. When Einstein
wrote down E=MC2 he unleashed the nuclear age. Now, we are on
the verge of a theory of all forces which may, one day,
determine the fate of the human species. Centuries from now, M-
Theory, I feel, may eventually determine the destiny of all
intelligent life in the Universe.


Horizon Host: Here's our special guest with a final word:

Dr Michio Kaku: I am proud to be part of this BBC documentary,
on the cutting edge of my field - M-Theory. It is absolutely
essential that scientists speak to the public about the exciting
and revolutionary developments rocking the foundations of modern
Physics. Hopefully, one of you viewers will be inspired by this
programme to become a physicist, who will eventually complete
the M-Theory and answer questions like: 'Is time travel
possible?' 'Can we journey to another dimension?' and 'What
happened before The Big Bang?'


[Thanks to Stuart Miller of http://www.uforeview.net for the lead]





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