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Location: UFOUpDatesList.Com > 2007 > Feb > Feb 7

Empiricists Theorists Clash In Search For Alien

From: UFO UpDates - Toronto <ufoupdates.nul>
Date: Wed, 07 Feb 2007 07:29:41 -0500
Fwd Date: Wed, 07 Feb 2007 07:29:41 -0500
Subject: Empiricists Theorists Clash In Search For Alien

Source: Fox News.Com


Tuesday, February 06, 2007

Empiricists, Theorists Clash In Search For Alien Life
By Leonard David

There is ongoing theoretical debate regarding how and where to
spot other worlds circling distant stars. And there are new
ground and in-space observational tools that are locking into
real-time data.

Presently, 200-plus known extrasolar planets have been found -
mostly huge gas giants like Jupiter within our own solar system
of Sun-orbiting planets.

Given these discoveries - just within the last 10 years or so -
under what conditions can we expect terrestrial planets to crop
up? Moreover, just how common are habitable planets in the

Planet scouting scientists met here January 26-28 at a media
workshop sponsored by the University of Colorado's Center for
Astrobiology to share theories as well as new observational

While the planetary plotting thickens, it's also a stew of
opposite conclusions, assumptions, talk of new or weird physics,
along with downright uncertainties.

It all adds up to a collegial clash between those that predict
contrasted to observational findings.

Debate revived and revitalized

What's now taking place is that extrasolar planet researchers
are shifting into high gear given ground and space-based tools.
That being the case, will theories on spotting Earth-like worlds
be overtaken by actual observation?

"Absolutely," responded Alan Boss, a research staff member at
the Carnegie Institution's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
in Washington, D.C.

"Theorists spent several decades debating the formation of our
solar system, where the basic physical characteristics had been
known for centuries... number of planets, masses, separations,
etc. That debate has now been revived and revitalized in the
last decade by the ever-increasing information we are learning
from extrasolar planetary systems," Boss explained to SPACE.com.

Boss said that the focus of the debate right now is on giant
planets - because those are the ones that have been found to
date in greatest abundance.

Theorists are parasites

But last December's liftoff of Europe's COnvection, ROtation and
planetary Transits (COROT) telescope - along with next year's
slated takeoff of NASA's Kepler mission - signal near future
discoveries of hot and warm super-Earths and habitable Earths,
Boss suggested.

"We can expect an equally contentious debate over how to explain
their formation and orbital evolution, though perhaps a debate
that is not quite so contentious as the current debate over
giant planet formation, given the two wildly different formation
mechanisms being considered for them," Boss said.

A theory that explains the previously known might be plausible,
Boss continued, but unless it can predict the unknown, it is of
little value - and even then may eventually be proven incorrect
by further observations.

"Theorists truly are parasites... and derive their sustenance
from the growing body of observational evidence about other
planetary systems," Boss concluded.

Synergistic understanding

"The standard theorist line is never believe in an observation
unless it has been confirmed theoretically," said Jack Lissauer,
a space scientist in the Planetary Systems Branch at NASA's Ames
Research Center near Silicon Valley, California. "I'm trained as
a theorist... but I'm interested in observations."

Lissauer is co-discoverer of the first four planets known to
orbit about faint M dwarf stars. He also co-discovered two faint
outer rings and two small inner moons of the planet Uranus.

To correspond to the real universe, researchers must be
constrained by observations, Lissauer pointed out.

But in order to guide observations and have some idea of where
to look, as well as how best to design planet-hunting
instruments, that's where theorists come in.

"It's synergistic," Lissauer said. "You have to have both to be
able to understand your observations theoretically and confirm
your theories through observation."

Planet migration

"Both theory and observations are key," concurred Sean Raymond,
a NASA postdoctoral researcher here at the University of
Colorado's Center for Astrobiology and Center for Astronomy and
Space Astrophysics.

"Observations make discoveries, but theory is needed to
interpret them," Raymond said.

For instance, "hot Jupiters" were discovered starting in 1995,
Raymond emphasized.

Most of the exoplanets identified to date are these gas giants
in a stable orbit very close to their parent star.

"It was certainly strange to have giant planets so close to
their stars," Raymond told SPACE.com.

Theory is what probed the origin of hot Jupiters, he said, and
came up with the idea of planet migration, the current model
being that these planets form father out and migrate in to their
current locations.

Cosmic cooking class

Consider it a lesson bubbling out of cosmic cooking class 101.

"It's like having dinner at someone's house. Observations can
tell you the specific ingredients that went into the meal. But
theory can figure out exactly how the pieces go together... how
the dish was cooked," Raymond explained.

Raymond projected outward over the next decade. He foresees the
finding of Earth analogs.

"We're going to be seeing all these little small guys. That's
going to be pretty cool," Raymond said.

Furthermore, more and more of them will be found in unexpected
and varied environments, and around different types of stars
once thought as impossible locales.

"Anytime anybody predicts, 'ooh, this could never happen'...
then you'll find somebody to disprove it," Raymond advised.

Light of a living planet

Margaret Turnbull, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science
Institute in Baltimore, is on a pursuit to look for life

She has created a catalog of nearby stars - dubbed "HabCat" -
that could host life forms similar to those on Earth. This
catalog is now the target list for the search for
extraterrestrial intelligence.

At the Space Telescope Science Institute, Turnbull is also the
principle investigator of a proposed mission to deploy a small
telescope on the Moon.

That instrument would be designed to look back at the Earth and
provide insight into how the light of a living planet changes as
continents and oceans pass in and out of view, as weather
patterns move and as seasons change.

The quest for extrasolar worlds is cutting-edge research and
therefore is contentious, Turnbull told SPACE.com.

"It is because you are really operating at the edge of human
knowledge and human understanding," Turnbull noted. "Every new
observation we make to some extent overthrows what we thought
that we knew."

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