From: David Rudiak <drudiak.nul> Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2012 12:20:33 -0800 Archived: Thu, 08 Mar 2012 06:16:30 -0500 Subject: Re: Inter-Dimensional Or Demonic >From: Gerald O'Connell<goc.nul> >To:<post.nul> >Date: Tue, 6 Mar 2012 20:57:31 -0000 >Subject: Re: Inter-Dimensional Or Demonic >>From: Ray Dickenson<r.dickenson.nul> >>To:<post.nul> >>Date: Sun, 4 Mar 2012 15:08:26 -0000 >>Subject: Re: Inter-Dimensional Or Demonic ><snip> >>And, as noted by researchers, the flow of data along the optic >>nerve is two-way (as with hearing). Clearly the brain is >>constantly telling the eye _how_and_what_ to see. >I think you are overstating the case pretty dramatically there, >Ray. The reTturn path info is probably just instructions around >attention: moving the antenna, focus etc.... There doesn't have >to be any interpretive data. Exactly. There is little if any two-way optic nerve flow in human beings. Neuroanatomists and neurophysiologists have been looking a long time and haven't found it. The situation is different for lower vertebrates. Functions like focus and pupil size do not involve the optic nerve but sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways traveling through smaller nerves (e.g. ciliary nerve). They have little or nothing to do with higher order visual perception. Eye muscle movements involve still other nerves, like the brain stem's oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve. Eye movements can be reflexive (e.g., maintaining fixation, tracking movements) or directed from above (e.g. reading). Maintaining stability of the scene is an important function, since every time we move our eyes, the image sweeps across our retinas. How does the brain "know" whether the movement is caused by actual movement or eye movement? There is a clever system called outflow, where the cortical centers controlling the voluntary movements signal the brain centers interpreting movement. The outflow signal to move the eyes is used to cancel information coming up the optic nerve to the cortical vision centers that the image is moving on the retina. Thus the world does not seem to move even though our eyes are darting around. It's a good thing the oculomotor centers are able to tell the motion centers they are moving the eyeballs, because otherwise the motion centers would be constantly misinterpreting retinal motion as actual motion and our visual world would be chaotic. (There are rare unfortunates afflicted with this condition.) There was a long debate over the outflow theory. Others held that there must be two-way sensory information from the eye muscles themselves traveling backward along the oculomotor nerves telling the brain where the eyeball was (as is the case with most of our muscles, telling us where our various body parts are positioned). But this turned out not to be the case. It is very simple to demonstrate the outflow system at work. Press on your eyeball to move the eye and the whole outside world seems to move. I leave it to the nihilists to conclude this demonstrates that no perception can ever be trusted. To me, it is only a demonstration that the perceptual system can be deliberately fooled through manipulation, to deprive it of the information it needs to come to the right conclusion. And even though the world seems to visually move, things still do not seem right to our brain, because other perceptions conclude that our bodies are not moving along with the moving world. So its not exactly a case of being totally fooled. Two way pathways of varying reciprocity are ubiquitous between brain areas. One of the more likely reasons for these two-way connections is so that the brain can cross-correlate the information derived from the various areas. This is not a case of one area telling the other what to "believe", but the brain working as a unified whole, one reason perceptions tend to be self-consistent and stable. Thus we often know we are having a visual illusion probably because the perceptual conclusion of one brain area conflicts with the conclusions of other areas and whatever is monitoring the output of these various areas (consciousness?) notes the conflict. To badly paraphrase Abraham Lincoln, you can fool some of the brain areas some of the time, but you can't fool all of the brain areas all of the time (unless something pathological is at work). David Rudiak Listen to 'Strange Days... Indeed' - The PodCast At: http://www.virtuallystrange.net/ufo/sdi/program/ These contents above are copyright of the author and UFO UpDates - Toronto. They may not be reproduced without the express permission of both parties and are intended for educational use only.
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